To support the changes in the economy of the county in the 18th century, new industries were to develop along the coastline. Notable amongst these was the lime industry, with large kilns at sites including Holy Island, Seahouses and Beadnell supplying essential raw materials for improving soil fertility. Craster developed as a port for the export of whinstone to the continent, with pantiles coming in as ballast. A distinct architecture is associated with this period of growth in trade and industry with agricultural warehouses and merchant houses being amongst the building types, which survive to the present day.
Another notable feature of the AONB is the linear form which is emphasised by the north-south routes to the western edge of the A1 and the East Coast mainline railway. The development of the railway not only facilitated trade and industry, it heralded the start of tourism, notably enabling the eccentric publisher Edward Hudson to refurbish Lindisfarne Castle as a holiday retreat, with the help of Edwin Lutyens and Gertrude Jekyll.
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